Bagan: Land of 10,000 Stupas

Sunrise over Bagan from a hot air balloon

 “This is Burma, and it is quite unlike any land you know about.”

- Rudyard Kipling

Burner Tests - Oriental Ballooning

Absolute stillness. The moments before sunrise feel as though the world is holding its breath. We certainly are. To the eight of us huddled together in the basket of our hot-air balloon, it feels like we’re hovering in suspended animation, waiting for a glimpse of something man-made through the mist draped over the plains. And then - it happens. As the heavy air lifts, we’re treated to the sight of the day’s first light glinting off the golden dome of the Dhammayazika Pagoda in the distance.

As we watch, stupa after stupa emerges from the mist until the plains are dotted with countless reddish-brown temples basking in the glow of the morning light. It’s a sight that’s both staggeringly beautiful and heartbreakingly sad. At the height of its power circa the 12th century B.C, the Kingdom of Bagan boasted more than 10,000 temples packed into this small area alone. Today, this once-mighty land has dwindled down to only around 2,000 stupas still remaining, their preservation efforts barely fuelled by the burgeoning tourist trade.

The first ten minutes or so of the balloon ride continue in silence, punctuated only by the clicks of our cameras and the occasional roar of the burner unit. Our pilot Rick seems at home in the air, only breaking the silence every now and then to point out a particular temple or to shout, “Mingalarbar!” to the local kids who run out of their houses to wave at our balloon as we pass overhead. As we approach the midway point of our ride, we start chatting. It turns out that he’s been a balloon pilot for most of his career, with a UK license and medicals. He was so passionate about the profession that his son has even pursued the same path - “He got his balloon license before he applied for his drivers’ permit,” Rick says with a laugh. “He’s actually up in the air right now, that’s him over there.” He’s pointing at one of the red balloons emblazoned with the Balloons Over Bagan logo.

Sunrise - Oriental Ballooning
Bird's Eye View - Oriental Ballooning
Bird's Eye - Oriental Ballooning
Up, up and away - Hot air balloon flight over Bagan with Oriental Ballooning

If you’re the type of person who has a bucket list, then a balloon ride over Bagan needs to be on it. With the government cracking down on the efforts to conserve Bagan’s archaeological heritage, there are very few stupas left that visitors are still allowed to climb - and the best way to behold the beauty of Bagan is from above. It’s expensive, but by no means overpriced. The pilots and crew are knowledgeable and very skilled; that kind of training doesn’t come cheap. Some of the cost of the balloon ride goes towards local farmers and landowners on the rare occasion that a pilot has to land in their field without prior permission. Rick tells us that the company pays a fine for when this happens, plus compensation provided for any damaged crop. In this way, the balloon companies are pumping money into Bagan’s economy. It’s an integral part of the town’s tourist offering - even budget travellers are willing to fork out the $399USD per person for a hot air balloon ride. We met a French couple who had been backpacking across Myanmar for the past three weeks, staying at hostels and taking local buses to get from city to city. It was one big splurge on their holiday.

As we fly, we learn more about the weather conditions required for balloon flight. Rain is a factor, but so is wind speed. The weather needs to be calm, cool and clear for a hot air balloon flight, which is why sunrise and sunset are the two most common flight times. Before we arrived, Rick says, they had to cancel sunrise rides for several days because it was too windy. Given we only have two mornings in Bagan, we feel immensely lucky to have had nature on our side.

E-biking in Bagan.jpg
Ananda Pagoda

The skies are not the only way to see these stupa-strewn plains. The Bagan Archaelogical Zone is built well for independent travellers. The best way to explore the area is by e-bike, riding from temple to temple via an intricate web of interconnected dirt roads. A dirt track is the best case scenario. Robb, our ‘designated guide’, is armed with a temple tracking app that he glances at from time to time before directing us to our next destination. Several times we struggle through sandy tracks (aka deathtraps) only to emerge in a clearings that are mostly bush with no discernible trail to follow (and occasionally some confused-looking cattle). We come out at the end with a broken headlight but that’s it. On the whole we’re just lucky to not have had any nasty accidents - in part because I wasn’t adventurous enough to ride an e-bike on the main roads by myself. My three fellow travellers were extremely encouraging and wildly enthusiastic when I did my first wobbly test run, but this rapidly turned into dismay when the full extent of my road skills were revealed. Disastrous attempts at riding e-bikes aside, anyone with a decent degree of coordination and street-savviness would be able to hop on and go.

Lawkar Nandar Pagoda

Our first stupa sighting was on the short 8pm drive to our hotel the night we arrived in Bagan, as we sped past a lone, lit-up dome glowing eerily in the dark. It was a teaser of all the temples to come. Back at the hotel after our balloon flight, we chat excitedly about the long day of temple-scaling ahead of us. Aash and I are keen to test out our new camera, and what better way to capture the magic of this enchanted kingdom than from atop a pagoda? In November 2017 the authorities banned climbing the stupas, citing safety as the main reason. But we’re confident there are still a few climbable ones to be found by savvy visitors.

We set off on a mission to visit the lesser-known temples; the more obscure, the better. Our waiter at the hotel brunch has told us we’ve arrived just ahead of the tourist season, so we’re not surprised that the only other people around are a smattering of hippies in technicolour harem pants. Our first stop is Lawkar Nandar Pagoda, its magnificent gilded hti making it a notable spot on the map. Next we visit one with its beautiful interior murals still intact. We’re intrigued by an unnamed temple on the app map labelled “Steps up - be careful” and are stoked to be the only ones there. After poking around, we finally identify the crumbling remains of steps (at least, we think they’re steps) behind one of the stupas - they look as though they will disintegrate into dust at any moment. Almost instantly, a Myanmarese man pulls over on a bike to greet us. He glances at the ‘steps’, then gives us a knowing look. We explore the surrounding stupas for a little while longer, then as we’re mounting our e-bikes again he asks if we want to climb. “This one?” Robb asks, pointing. “I will take you to a stupa you can climb, five minutes away. Not far,” the man says.

Since we aren’t desperate enough to climb a pagoda that we would follow a stranger to an unknown destination, we say no thanks and continue on our way.

Today we decide it’s time to try local food and ride over to Delicious for a late lunch. It’s 3pm and the restaurant is almost deserted. Suddenly we’re ravenous. The food takes a long time to come out, but it’s worth the wait. The coconut rice is fragrant with a delicate flavour. Paired with a simple pumpkin and ginger curry, it’s probably the most decadent dish I’ve consumed in Asia.

Viewpoint Beside Dhammayazaka Pagoda

When you spend hours exploring this vast, abandoned kingdom, the temples all start to blur together. An hour before sunset, we decide to finish the day of stupa-hopping at Dhammayazika, a pagoda very close to our hotel. Hannah helpfully points out that we probably don’t want to be biking around a maze of dirt tracks after dark and we wholeheartedly agree. To our delight, we see a stupa overlooking the plains packed with tourists and locals alike on the terrace. We thrust off our shoes and ascend as quickly as we can to make the most of our unexpected photo opportunity.

North and South Guni
Pagoda Details

The following day, we stumble upon North Guni temple and feel like explorers who have discovered something secret, pushing aside overgrown trailing weeds to get to the entrance (cue “the Trail We Blaze”). Sprawling vines, rampant overgrowth and a gargantuan red temple...it’s a setting straight out of an Indiana Jones film. So far we’ve only made it to the top of one pagoda, so when we look up at the promising terrace on the North Guni Temple we feel our hope reignite. Until we walk around the other side and bump into the temple’s ‘caretakers’, who are just as surprised to see us as we are to see them. They ask us if we want to be taken to a temple nearby that we can climb. We politely decline. Undeterred, they offer us postcards instead - ironically capturing the up-high views of Bagan’s splendid vistas that we’re seeking.

To feel truly intrepid, we follow a trail almost completely obscured by tall grass to a deserted stupa. We’re alone there for about ten seconds. A middle aged couple had spotted us turn into this track from the main road and followed us to see what the fuss was about. As they take off their shoes and enter the stupa they avoid eye contact almost guiltily, like they know they have shattered our illusion of solitude. It’s laughable really. We don’t own the pagoda.

By now, the realisation is dawning that we will never have these forgotten stupas to ourselves. Bagan may have been an undiscovered gem once, but it’s home to some of the finest examples of Myanmar’s rich heritage still standing, and the world has cottoned on. Even in the low season you’re never alone. It’s a reminder that there is almost nowhere left on the planet where you can truly feel like an explorer. Climbing a secluded pagoda to watch the sunrise is one bucket list item we’re not going to be crossing off anytime soon. It’s clear that the beautiful sunrise and sunset photos of the stupas all over the internet were either taken back when visitors were still allowed to climb these magnificent structures, or from an illegal vantage point after the climbing ban. It actually makes a lot of sense - any effort to minimise the impact of tourism on these precious cultural relics will go a long way in this struggling country. Perhaps it’s enough to admire these glittering tributes to Buddha from our very human vantage points on the ground and our birds’ eye view from the sky.

 Accommodation: Bagan Lodge
Food & Drink:
Delicious | Moon: Be Kind to Animals | Moon 2: Be Kind to Animals
Hot Air Balloon Company: Oriental Ballooning
E-Bikes: Rented from Bagan Lodge